Learn the value of contributing to your IRA as early as possible.
Planning for retirement

IRA contributions: The earlier, the better

Learn the value of contributing to your IRA as early as possible.
5 minute read
January 06, 2022
Planning for retirement
Save for retirement

If you’re under age 50, you can contribute up to $6,000 across 1 or more IRAs for tax years 2021 and 2022. If you’re age 50 or older, the limit is slightly higher ($7,000).*

You can make an IRA contribution for a given year anytime between January 1 and the tax-filing deadline of the following year (usually April 15). So you can make a 2021 IRA contribution between January 1, 2021, and April 18, 2022—but we don’t recommend waiting. Here’s why.

The point of investing

You invest to earn money. The amount of money you earn depends primarily on 3 factors—2 of which you can control.

  1. Investment performance. You can’t control investment performance; that’s why all investing involves risk. The main cause of risk? Market movement, which affects your investment earnings (i.e., your total return).
  2. The amount you invest. You earn money through compounding—when your investment earnings generate their own earnings. If you contribute more, you have more money to generate earnings … which means you have more earnings to generate additional earnings. You can control the amount you invest as long as you stay within the annual IRA contribution limits.
  3. When you invest. If you wait until the tax deadline to make an IRA contribution, you'll miss out on more than 15 months of compounding. If you have the financial flexibility to choose when you contribute to your IRA, do it as soon as possible. Learn how time is related to risk and reward

Time is money

Let’s say you invest $6,000 in your IRA every year for 30 years and your average annual return is 4%.**

  • Example A: You make a lump-sum investment every January and your end balance is $354,053, which includes $174,053 in earnings.
  • Example B: You make a lump-sum investment every April and your end balance is $336,510, which includes $156,510 in earnings. That’s $17,543 less than you’d earn in Example A.

In each example, you’re contributing a total of $180,000 to your IRA over the course of 30 years. The difference in earnings is due entirely to the timing of your contributions.

Do your best

The hypothetical examples above represent what-if scenarios that aren’t always possible to replicate in real life. For instance, you may not be able to invest the same amount each year or you may have to skip a few years altogether. That’s okay. Take small steps toward saving 12%–15% of your gross income (including employer contributions) each year.

Maybe you don’t have the financial flexibility to make a lump-sum investment in your IRA in January or April—or any other month, for that matter. That’s okay too. Try setting up recurring automatic bank transfers. Making biweekly contributions over the course of 30 years (for a total contribution of $180,000) and earning a 4% average annual return would result in an end balance smaller than Example A but bigger than Example B. Not too shabby.

Want to get a better handle on your retirement goals? Use our retirement income calculator to review your progress so far and determine how much money you may need in the future.

If you’re making an IRA contribution—no matter the amount and timing—you’re on the right track. But if you happen to find yourself in the position to make your annual IRA contribution before the following year’s tax-filing deadline, go for it!

Ready to make a contribution?

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*You can never contribute more than you’ve earned for the year.

**These hypothetical examples don't represent the returns from any particular investments. The 4% return isn't guaranteed. All figures are in today’s dollars. Source: Vanguard.

All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest.

We recommend that you consult a tax or financial advisor about your individual situation.