Terms & Conditions of Use

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Please carefully read the following Terms and Conditions of Use ("Terms of Use") before using this website ("Site"). By using this Site, you agree to follow and be bound by these Terms of Use, which govern your use of the Site. Nothing contained in these Terms of Use is intended to modify or amend any other written agreement, if any, that may currently be in effect between you and Vanguard with regard to matters other than your use of the Site. Vanguard may periodically modify these Terms of Use, and any such modifications will be effective immediately upon posting. We suggest that you periodically check these Terms of Use for modifications. If you do not agree to these Terms of Use, do not use this Site.

This Site is owned and operated by The Vanguard Group, Inc., and all of its subsidiaries and affiliates, including Vanguard Brokerage Services and Vanguard Marketing Corporation (collectively, "Vanguard"). Vanguard may modify, suspend, discontinue, or restrict the use and availability of any portion of this Site at any time, without notice or liability. Your use of this Site may be monitored by Vanguard and used for Vanguard's internal business purposes, without liability.

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Vanguard grants you a limited, revocable, nonexclusive, nontransferable license to view, store, bookmark, download, and print the pages within this Site solely for your personal, informational, and noncommercial use or as expressly authorized by Vanguard in writing. You are responsible for obtaining and maintaining all equipment, services, and other materials that you need to access this Site. Vanguard reserves all rights not expressly granted in these Terms of Use. Except as otherwise stated in these Terms of Use or as expressly authorized by Vanguard in writing, you may not (or enable others to):

  • Modify, copy, screen capture, distribute, forward, transmit, post, display, perform, reproduce, publish, broadcast, license, create derivative works from, transfer, sell, or exploit any reports, data, information, content, software, RSS and podcast feeds, products, services, or other materials on, generated by or obtained from this Site, whether through links or otherwise (collectively, “Materials”);
  • Redeliver any page, text, image, or Materials on this Site using “framing” or other technology;
  • Engage in any conduct that could damage, disable, or overburden (i) this Site, (ii) any Materials or services provided through this Site, or (iii) any systems, networks, servers, or accounts related to this Site, including without limitation, using devices or software that provide repeated automated access to this Site, other than those made generally available by Vanguard;
  • Probe, scan, or test the vulnerability of any Materials, services, systems, networks, servers, or accounts related to this Site or attempt to gain unauthorized access to Materials, services, systems, networks, servers, or accounts connected or associated with this Site through hacking, password or data mining, or any other means of circumventing any access-limiting, user authentication or security device of any Materials, services, systems, networks, servers, or accounts related to this Site;
  • Modify, copy, obscure, remove, or display Vanguard’s name, logo, trademarks, text, notices, or images without Vanguard’s express written permission. To obtain such permission, you may e-mail us at intellectualproperty@vanguard.com; or
  • Include the term “Vanguard,” or any Vanguard trademark or executive’s name, or any variation of the foregoing, as a meta-tag, hidden textual element, or any other indicator that creates an impression of affiliation, sponsorship, or endorsement by Vanguard.

You may not link to this Site unless you comply with these linking conditions ("Linking Conditions"). Vanguard grants you a limited, revocable, nonexclusive right to create a hyperlink to this Site ("Link"), provided you comply at all times with the following conditions:

  • The Link must resolve either to Vanguard's portal page at www.vanguard.com, or to the appropriate one of Vanguard's homepages which are, https://investor.vanguard.com (for personal investors), https://retirementplans.vanguard.com (for retirement plan participants), https://institutional.vanguard.com (for institutional investors), and https://advisors.vanguard.com (for financial advisors), unaltered in any way;
  • The text of the Link must read either "The Vanguard Group," "Vanguard," "Vanguard Group," "Vanguard.com," or "www.vanguard.com." You may not use any Vanguard logo or graphic, or any other Vanguard trademark, as part of the Link without Vanguard's express written permission; and
  • The Link and surrounding context on the linking site must not: (a) falsely represent or misrepresent any relationship between the linking site and Vanguard, including suggestions of affiliation, endorsement, or sponsorship; (b) portray Vanguard or its affiliates, or their products or services, in a false, misleading, derogatory, or otherwise offensive manner; or (c) deliver the Materials in a framed environment or alter the layout, content, look, or feel of the Site.

If you have created a Link that conforms to these Linking Conditions, then you also may include one or more Links to any internal or subsidiary page of this Site that is located one or several levels down from the homepages (known as "deep links"), provided, however, that all such deep links must be in close physical proximity to the Link that conforms to the Linking Conditions. You may not maintain numerous or pervasive Links to this Site.

Vanguard grants you a limited, revocable, nonexclusive right to view, store, bookmark, access, download, display, create hyperlinks to and use the Really Simple Syndication and podcast feeds (collectively, the "Feeds") offered by Vanguard solely for your personal, informational and noncommercial use or as otherwise authorized by Vanguard in writing, provided you comply at all times with the following conditions:

  • Except as otherwise stated in these Terms of Use, you may not modify, copy, redistribute, transmit, post, display, perform, reproduce, publish, broadcast, license, create derivative works from, transfer, sell or exploit in any manner whatsoever the Feeds or the reports, data, information, content, software, files, products, services or other materials supplied by Vanguard in connection therewith;
  • You may create a hyperlink to Vanguard's Feeds, provided that (a) the hyperlink is functional and resolves directly to the applicable Vanguard website page, unaltered and unframed in any way; and (b) you provide attribution to the appropriate Vanguard website in connection with your use of the Feeds. If you provide this attribution in text, the hyperlink must read either "Vanguard.com" or "www.vanguard.com." If you provide this attribution with a graphic, you must use the graphic Vanguard has incorporated into the Feeds, without alteration. Your right to use the above-referenced Vanguard graphic is limited to providing attribution to Vanguard in connection with the Feeds. You may not use any Vanguard logo or graphic, or any other Vanguard trademark, for any other purpose without Vanguard's express written permission;
  • Any hyperlink to Vanguard's Feeds and the surrounding context on your site must not: (a) falsely represent or misrepresent any relationship between Vanguard and you or your site, products or services or any third party or their site, products and services, including suggestions of affiliation, endorsement or sponsorship; (b) portray Vanguard or its affiliates, or their products or services, in a false, misleading, derogatory or otherwise offensive manner; or (c) display the content of Vanguard's Feeds in a manner that does not permit successful linking to, redirection to or delivery of the applicable Vanguard website page; and
  • You may not incorporate advertising into or targeted towards the content of Vanguard's Feeds or insert any intermediate page, splash page or other content or materials between any hyperlink to Vanguard's Feeds and the applicable Vanguard website page.

Any uses of Vanguard's Feeds not granted herein are strictly prohibited. Vanguard retains ownership of and all other rights in and to the Feeds, and any reports, data, information, content, software, files, products, services, links, trademarks, logos or other materials used in connection therewith. Vanguard reserves the right, in its sole discretion, with or without cause, and without liability, to suspend, discontinue or modify any or all of its Feeds at any time and to immediately require you to cease accessing, displaying, or otherwise using any or all of the Feeds or the content of the Feeds. Vanguard will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from your use of or in connection with the Feeds.

You agree that you are solely responsible for all information, data, content, text, photographs, graphics, images, videos, messages, comments, quotations, files, documents, and any other materials that you submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available via the Site ("User Content"). By submitting, uploading, posting, e-mailing, or transmitting User Content to the Site, you represent and warrant that either you own all right, title, and interest in and to the User Content or have express permission from the owner to copy and use such User Content for all purposes related to the Site. Vanguard does not control and is not responsible for the User Content uploaded via the Site, and Vanguard neither guarantees the accuracy, quality, or appropriateness of nor endorses any User Content submitted to the Site.

You agree not to use the Site to:

  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any User Content that is unlawful, harmful, threatening, abusive, menacing, harassing, tortious, defamatory, vulgar, pornographic, obscene, offensive, blasphemous, libelous, unlawful, invasive of another’s privacy or publicity rights, hateful, or racially, ethnically, or otherwise objectionable;   
  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any User Content that personally attacks or is derogatory toward Vanguard as an entity, Vanguard employees, any Vanguard products or services, or any Vanguard Materials; 
  • harm minors in any way, including, but not limited to, submitting, uploading, posting, e-mailing, transmitting, or otherwise making available content that violates child pornography laws, child sexual exploitation laws, or laws prohibiting the depiction of minors engaged in sexual conduct; 
  • impersonate any person or entity, or falsely state or otherwise misrepresent your affiliation with a person or entity; 
  • forge headers or otherwise manipulate identifiers in order to disguise the origin of any User Content transmitted through the Site; 
  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any User Content that you do not have a right to make available under any law or contractual or fiduciary relationships or obligations; 
  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any User Content that infringes, violates, or misappropriates any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other intellectual property or proprietary right or any moral right of any party; 
  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any personal information or specific account details about yourself or any person or entity; 
  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any advertising, promotional materials, junk mail, spam, chain letters, pyramid schemes, or any other form of solicitation; 
  • submit, upload, post, e-mail, transmit, or otherwise make available any material that contains viruses or any other computer code, files, or programs designed to interrupt, destroy, or limit the functionality of any computer software or hardware or telecommunications equipment; or 
  • intentionally or unintentionally violate any applicable local, state, national, or international laws, rules, regulations, decrees, acts, orders, directives, legislation, bills, or statutes.

You grant Vanguard and its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents, licensors, and vendors a perpetual, worldwide, irrevocable, nonexclusive, fully-paid up, royalty-free, sublicensable, and transferable right and license to use, store, modify, adapt, translate, publish, display, broadcast, perform, disclose, distribute, sell, reproduce, and create derivative works from any User Content, in whole or in part, in any medium or technology throughout the world, including any inventions, concepts, techniques, know-how, ideas, or expressions of ideas arising out of or based on the User Content, for any purpose in Vanguard’s sole discretion, without the requirement of any permission from or compensation or notice, and without liability, to you or any third party. Vanguard shall exclusively own all right, title, and interest in and to any derivative works or inventions created by or on behalf of Vanguard that incorporate or otherwise make use of any User Content, without the requirement of any permission from or compensation or notice, and without liability, to you or any third party. 

Except as set forth in our Privacy Policy, none of the User Content that you submit, upload, post, e-mail, or transmit or otherwise make available via the Site shall be subject to any confidentiality obligations by Vanguard and its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents, licensors, and vendors. Except as may be provided by federal securities laws, Vanguard shall not be liable in any way for any User Content or for the use or disclosure of any User Content.

You acknowledge that Vanguard and/or its vendors may or may not (but are not obligated to) monitor User Content, but that Vanguard shall have the right in its sole discretion to monitor, post, move, refuse, or remove any User Content, in whole or in part, for any reason whatsoever, without notice and without liability.

If you have any questions or comments about your Vanguard investments or other customer service issues, please click Contact us.

Certain parts of this Site may be protected by passwords or require a login. Further, for authentication purposes, Vanguard may provide you with security codes delivered by text message to allow you to access the Site and certain features on this Site may require you to answer a designated security question. You agree to provide Vanguard with current, complete, and accurate information about you as prompted by the applicable registration process and agree to regularly update this information to maintain its completeness and accuracy. You agree to use this Site to access only those accounts on which you are authorized to act, and you agree to use your own user names, logins, passwords, and security questions and answers when accessing accounts on which you are authorized to act. You agree that the phone number you provide to receive text messages is registered in your name. You further agree not to obtain or attempt to obtain unauthorized access to such parts of or features on this Site, or to any other protected Materials or information, through any means not intentionally made available to you by Vanguard.

You are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of any account information, user names, logins, passwords, and security questions and answers that you use to access any page or feature on this Site, and for logging off of your account and any protected areas of the Site. Further, you are fully responsible for all activities occurring under your accounts, user names, logins, passwords, and security questions and answers that result from your negligence, carelessness, misconduct, or failure to use or maintain appropriate security measures. You agree that you will not direct Vanguard to send text messages or automated calls to mobile phones or other access devices that do not utilize personalized security codes or encryption. If you become aware of any suspicious or unauthorized conduct concerning your accounts, user names, logins, passwords, or security questions and answers, you agree to contact Vanguard immediately. Vanguard will not be liable for any loss or damage arising from your failure to comply with this paragraph. Note: The transmission of security codes to mobile or other access devices is available to phone numbers domestic to the United States and internationally. The delivery of security code text messages or automated calls may not be available to your phone number depending on your location.

Products and services provided to you through this Site may involve the electronic transmission, including via any e-mail address you provide to us, of information that you may consider to be personal financial information or promotional and marketing materials, and you consent to such transmission.

The Materials on this Site are for information, education, and noncommercial purposes only. Although Vanguard may provide data, information, and content relating to investment approaches and opportunities to buy or sell securities and/or mutual funds, you should not construe any such information or other content available through this Site as legal or tax advice. You alone will bear the sole responsibility of evaluating the merits and risks associated with the use of any Materials on this Site before making any decisions based on such Materials. In exchange for using such Materials, you agree not to hold Vanguard or its third-party information providers liable for any possible claim for damages arising from any decision you make based on the Materials made available to you through this Site. By providing access to other websites, neither Vanguard nor any of its affiliates is recommending the purchase or sale of the stock issued by any company, nor are they endorsing services provided by any website's sponsoring organization.

All Materials on this Site, whether separate or compiled, including, but not limited to, text, graphics, audio clips, logos, buttons, images, digital downloads, data compilations, software, icons, html code and xml code, as well as all copyright, patent, trademark, trade dress, and other rights therein, are owned or licensed by Vanguard and its third-party information providers, and are protected by United States and international intellectual property laws.

Pursuant to Section 512(c)(2) of the Copyright Revision Act, as enacted through the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Vanguard designates an agent as described below to receive notifications of claimed copyright infringement by mail: Pamela Crocker, Senior Counsel, The Vanguard Group, Inc., P.O. Box 2600, V-26, Valley Forge, PA 19482-2600.

The designated copyright agent can also be reached by telephone at (610) 669-6100, by fax at (610) 669-6600, and by e-mail at intellectualproperty@vanguard.com.

If you have any other customer service questions or would like an alternative method of reaching us, please click Contact us.

All trademarks, service marks, and logos appearing on this Site are the exclusive property of their respective owners.

All Vanguard graphics, logos, page headers, and service names are trademarks, service marks, or trade dress of Vanguard. Vanguard's trademarks, service marks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service that is not Vanguard's, in any manner that is likely to cause confusion among customers or investors, or in any manner that disparages or discredits Vanguard. Nothing contained on this Site should be construed as granting any license or right in or to any trademarks, service marks, or trade dress of Vanguard.

Copyright © 2017, Citigroup Index LLC. All rights reserved. "Citigroup", "Citi" and other service marks and trademarks related to Citigroup Index LLC are trademarks and service marks of Citigroup Inc. or its affiliates, are used and registered throughout the world, and are used under license for certain purposes by Vanguard. The investment fund offered herein is not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Citigroup Index LLC ("Citigroup Index"), and Citigroup Index makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in such fund. Reproduction of the Citigroup Index data and information in any form is prohibited except with the prior written permission of Citigroup Index. Although such data and information is believed to be reliable, Citigroup Index does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, completeness or availability of any data and information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from the use of such data and information. CITIGROUP INDEX GIVES NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE. In no event shall Citigroup Index be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages in connection with any use of the Citigroup Index data and information.

The Vanguard ETFs are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by Barclays. Barclays does not make any representation regarding the advisability of investing in Vanguard ETFs or the advisability of investing in securities generally. Barclays' only relationship with Vanguard is the licensing of the Index, which is determined, composed, and calculated by Barclays without regard to Vanguard or the Vanguard ETFs. Barclays has no obligation to take the needs of Vanguard or the owners of the Vanguard ETFs into consideration in determining, composing, or calculating the Index. Barclays has no obligation or liability in connection with administration, marketing, or trading of the Vanguard ETFs.

Vanguard funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by the University of Chicago or its Center for Research in Security Prices, and neither the University of Chicago nor its Center for Research in Security Prices makes any representation regarding the advisability of investing in the funds.

Morningstar data: © 2013 Morningstar, Inc. All rights reserved. The information contained herein: (1) is proprietary to Morningstar and/or its content providers; (2) may not be copied or distributed; (3) does not constitute investment advice offered by Morningstar; and (4) is not warranted to be accurate, complete, or timely.  Neither Morningstar nor its content providers are responsible for any damages or losses arising from any use of this information.  Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

The funds or securities referred to herein that are offered by The Vanguard Group and track an MSCI index are not sponsored, endorsed, or promoted by MSCI, and MSCI bears no liability with respect to any such funds or securities. For such funds or securities, the prospectus or the Statement of Additional Information contains a more detailed description of the limited relationship MSCI has with The Vanguard Group, Inc.

Android is a trademark of Google Inc.

Apple, the Apple logo, iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc.

CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are trademarks owned by CFA Institute.

Dividend Achievers is a trademark of The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc. (collectively, with its affiliates, "NASDAQ OMX") and has been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. Vanguard mutual funds are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by NASDAQ OMX, and NASDAQ OMX MAKES NO WARRANTIES AND BEARS NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE VANGUARD MUTUAL FUNDS.

The Dow Jones indexes (the "Indexes") are products of Dow Jones Indexes, licensed trademarks of CME Group Index Services LLC ("CME"), and have been licensed for use. "Dow Jones®" and "Dow Jones Indexes" are service marks of Dow Jones Trademark Holdings, LLC ("Dow Jones"), have been licensed to CME, and have been sublicensed for use for certain purposes by The Vanguard Group, Inc. The Vanguard Group, Inc.'s funds and/or ETFs based on the Indexes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by Dow Jones, CME, or their respective affiliates and Dow Jones, CME, and their respective affiliates make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in such product(s).

Financial Engines, Financial Engines Investment Advisor, Advice Server, and AdviceLight are trademarks of Financial Engines, Inc. Financial Engines Advisors LLC, a federally registered investment advisor and wholly owned subsidiary of Financial Engines, Inc., provides all advisory services.

The Global Industry Classification Standard ("GICS") was developed by and is the exclusive property and a service mark of Morgan Stanley Capital International Inc. ("MSCI") and Standard & Poor's, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ("S&P") and is licensed for use. Neither MSCI, S&P nor any third party involved in making or compiling the GICS or any GlCS classifications makes any express or implied warranties or representations with respect to such standard or classification (or the results to be obtained by the use thereof), and all such parties hereby expressly disclaim all warranties of originality, accuracy, completeness, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose with respect to any of such standard or classification. Without limiting any of the foregoing, in no event shall MSCI, S&P, any of their affiliates or any third party involved in making or compiling the GICS or any GICS classifications have any liability for any direct, indirect, special, punitive, consequential or any other damages (including lost profits) even if notified of the possibility of such damages.

London Stock Exchange Group companies includes FTSE International Limited ("FTSE"), Frank Russell Company ("Russell"), MTS Next Limited ("MTS"), and FTSE TMX Global Debt Capital Markets Inc ("FTSE TMX"). All rights reserved. "FTSE®", "Russell®", "MTS®", "FTSE TMX®" and "FTSE Russell" and other service marks and trademarks related to the FTSE or Russell indexes are trade marks of the London Stock Exchange Group companies and are used by FTSE, MTS, FTSE TMX and Russell under licence. All information is provided for information purposes only. No responsibility or liability can be accepted by the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor its licensors for any errors or for any loss from use of this publication. Neither the London Stock Exchange Group companies nor any of their licensors make any claim, prediction, warranty or representation whatsoever, expressly or impliedly, either as to the results to be obtained from the use of the FTSE Indexes or the fitness or suitability of the Indexes for any particular purpose to which they might be put.

Reader's Digest and the Pegasus logo are registered trademarks of The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. Used under license.

The Russell Indexes and Russell® are registered trademarks of Russell Investments and have been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. The products are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by Russell Investments and Russell Investments makes no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the products.

S&P® and S&P 500® are registered trademarks of Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC ("S&P") and have been licensed for use by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and its affiliates and sublicensed for certain purposes by Vanguard. The S&P Index is a product of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC and has been licensed for use by Vanguard. The Vanguard Fund(s) is not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P or their respective affiliates, and none of S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P nor their respective affiliates, and none of the S&P Dow Jones Indices LLC, Dow Jones, S&P nor their respective affiliates makes any representation regarding the advisability of investing in such product(s).

SEDOL Data has been provided from the London Stock Exchange's SEDOL Masterfile®. SEDOL and SEDOL Masterfile® are registered trademarks of the London Stock Exchange Group PLC.

TurboTax and TurboTax Online are trademarks and service marks of Intuit Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.

Upromise, the Upromise logo, and Ugift are registered service marks of Upromise, Inc.

Vanguard Annuity Access is offered in collaboration with Hueler Investment Services, Inc. through the Income Solutions platform. Income Solutions is a registered trademark of Hueler Investment Services, Inc. and used under license. United States Patent No. 7,653,560.

Visa and Plus are trademarks of Visa International Service Association.

"Wilshire 4500" and "Wilshire 5000" are trademarks and "Wilshire" is a service mark of Wilshire Associates Incorporated and they have been licensed for use by The Vanguard Group, Inc. ("Vanguard").  The Vanguard funds and/or ETFs (the "Products") are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Wilshire Associates Incorporated or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and they make no representation regarding the advisability of investing in the Products.

Automated Form and Signature Capture Technology Licensed under Comfidex U.S. Patent Nos. 6,189,009 and 6,725,220.

Vanguard Exchange-Traded Funds ("Vanguard ETFs®") are produced by U.S. Patent No. 6,879,964; 7,337,138; 7,720,749; 7,925,573; 8,090,646; and 8,417,623.

Vanguard Auto-Rebalancing methodology is protected by U.S. Patent Nos. 7,149,713 and 7,552,079.

Vanguard Bond ETF Dividend Declaration model is protected by U.S. Patent Nos. 7,792,725 and 8,175,944.

Vanguard Personal QDI Calculation Process are protected by U.S. Patent Application No. 7,953,661.

CGS identifiers have been provided by CUSIP Global Services, managed on behalf of the American Bankers Association by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services, LLC, and are not for use or dissemination in a manner that would serve as a substitute for any CUSIP service. The CUSIP Database, © 2018 American Bankers Association. “CUSIP” is a registered trademark of the American Bankers Association.

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Each investment product and service referred to on this Site is intended to be made available only to U.S. residents. This Site will not be considered a solicitation for or offering of any investment product or service to any person in any jurisdiction where such solicitation or offering would be illegal. Persons residing outside the United States are invited to visit Vanguard's website for Non-U.S. Investors for more information about products and services available to them.

Data and other materials appearing on this Site that are provided by third parties are believed by Vanguard to be obtained from reliable sources, but Vanguard cannot guarantee and is not responsible for their accuracy, timeliness, completeness, or suitability for use. Vanguard is not responsible for, and does not prepare, edit, or endorse, the content, advertising, products, or other materials on or available from any website owned or operated by a third party that is linked to this Site via hyperlink. The fact that Vanguard has provided a link to a third party's website does not constitute an implicit or explicit endorsement, authorization, sponsorship, or affiliation by Vanguard with respect to such website, its owners, providers, or services. You will use any such third-party content at your own risk and you agree that Vanguard is not liable for any loss or damage that you may suffer by using third-party websites or any content, advertising, products, or other materials in connection therewith. 

All content on this Site is presented only as of the date published or indicated, and may be superseded by subsequent market events or for other reasons. In addition, you are responsible for setting the cache settings on your browser to ensure you are receiving the most recent data.

The rights granted to you herein terminate immediately upon any violation by you of these Terms of Use. Vanguard, in its sole discretion, reserves the right to temporarily or permanently terminate your access to and use of this Site at any time and for any reason whatsoever, without notice or liability. Vanguard will not be liable to you or any third party for any termination of your access to or use of this Site.

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YOUR USE OF THIS SITE IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" AND "AS AVAILABLE" BASIS. TO THE FULL EXTENT PERMITTED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW, VANGUARD AND ITS AFFILIATES, SUBSIDIARIES, DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, LICENSORS, AND ANY THIRD-PARTY INFORMATION PROVIDERS AND VENDORS EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY, NONINFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND ALL WARRANTIES REGARDING SECURITY, CURRENCY, CORRECTNESS, QUALITY, ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, RELIABILITY, PERFORMANCE, TIMELINESS, OR CONTINUED AVAILABILITY, WITH RESPECT TO (I) THE SITE; (II) ANY MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES AVAILABLE ON OR THROUGH THE SITE; (III) USE OF THE SITE, MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES; AND (IV) THE RESULTS OF THE USE OF THE SITE, MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES.

FURTHER, VANGUARD AND ITS AFFILIATES, SUBSIDIARIES, DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, LICENSORS, AND ANY THIRD-PARTY INFORMATION PROVIDERS AND VENDORS EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO ANY DELAYS OR ERRORS IN THE TRANSMISSION OR DELIVERY OF ANY MATERIALS, PRODUCTS, OR SERVICES AVAILABLE THROUGH THIS SITE.

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These Terms of Use ("Terms") cover Your use of trading functionality provided by Vanguard Brokerage Services ("VBS") that permits You to place dollar value trades in certain Securities (the "Service"), as described below.  These Terms are part of a binding legal contract between You and VBS (together with its parent, and their respective affiliates, "VBS"or "we"), on the other.  Please read these Terms carefully before using the Service, as doing so will indicate Your agreement to them.  If You do not agree to these Terms, then do not use the Service.  Your use of the Service is governed by these Terms, as well as the terms of other agreements You have with VBS, including the Vanguard Brokerage Account Agreement, the Website Terms of Use, and the Vanguard Mobile App Terms of Use (together, the "VBS Agreements").  These Terms supplement the VBS Agreements.

Unless defined in these Terms, capitalized terms used in these Terms shall have the meanings given to them in the VBS Agreements. VBS may change these Terms at any time. We will inform You of changes to these Terms, which will apply to Your use of the Service and transactions made after that date.  Your continued use of the Service after we notify You of changes to these Terms indicates that You agree to be bound by them.  If You do not agree with a change, You should discontinue the Service.

Overview: Dollar Trades and Fractional Shares

The Service allows You to buy and sell Eligible Securities in dollar values, rather than in whole shares ("Dollar Trades").  For example, if You wanted to invest $1,000.00 in Vanguard's Total Stock Market Index Fund ETF (symbol: VTI) trading at $204.60 and could purchase only whole shares, You could acquire only four (4) whole shares of VTI, which would leave more than 18% of Your investable funds ($181 of $1,000) out of the market.  By contrast, if You placed a Dollar Trade to buy $1,000.00 of VTI at the same price, You would own approximately 4.8875 shares of that Security, subject to the Terms below.

When You place Dollar Trades under the Service, You may end up owning a fraction of a single share ("Fractional Share"), or a number of whole shares and a Fractional Share for the Eligible Securities You purchase.  As described below, Fractional Shares present unique risks, and have certain limitations; they also may have different rights from a whole share of the same Security.  

Eligible Accounts.  The Service is available only to self-directed clients that do not have margin on any VBS brokerage account.  VBS reserves the right to add, delete, or amend the type of Accounts that are eligible for the Service at any time.  To participate, You must respond to an invitation to use the Service that You received directly from VBS.

Eligible Securities.  At this time, only exchange traded funds ("ETFs") issued by The Vanguard Group, Inc. ("VGI") are eligible for Dollar Trades ("Eligible Securities").  VBS reserves the right to add or delete a Security to the list of Eligible Securities at any time.  The inclusion or removal of particular Security as an Eligible Security under the Service is not a recommendation related to any Security, nor is it advice.  If VBS revokes a particular Security's status as an Eligible Security, You will no longer be able to place additional Dollar Trades to purchase or sell that Security.  You may, however, continue to place whole share trades to buy and sell such Securities.  If VBS no longer classifies a particular Security as an Eligible Security and You hold only a Fractional Share of that Security, it will be subject to VBS' Auto-Liquidation processes, described below.   

Eligible Orders.  At this time, the Service supports only market orders.  VBS reserves the right to expand the order types supported by the Service (e.g., limit orders).

Dollar Value Order Conversion.  VBS will convert Your Dollar Trade from dollars to shares on two separate occasions.  In both cases, Your Dollar Trade will be converted into share quantities for execution to four decimal places, and the share quantities will be rounded down.   This rounding process may result in the final purchase amount of an Eligible Security being one to several cents less than what You intended to invest (for example, an order for $999.98 instead of $1,000.00). 

Estimated Share Quantity.    Before you place Your Dollar Trade, VBS will provide You with an estimate of the share quantity impacted by Your proposed Dollar Trade, including any Fractional Share quantity you may buy or sell as a result of such trade ("Estimated Share Quantity").  VBS calculates this estimate to provide You with an approximation of the total quantity of shares impacted by Your Dollar Trade, and to meet its regulatory reporting obligations. For Dollar Trades placed during market hours, VBS performs this conversion by dividing the dollar amount You enter in the trade path by the then-current bid/ask price; if that data is unavailable for any reason, VBS will use the last traded price or (if neither current bid/ask or last traded price data is available) the previous closing price in that Eligible Security.  For Dollar Trades placed outside market hours, VBS provides an Estimated Share Quantity using the previous closing price. 

Final Fractional Share Quantity.  Once You place a Dollar Trade, VBS recalculates the Fractional Share quantity impacted by Your order based on the then-current bid/ask price. For Dollar Trades placed after market hours, VBS will use the bid/ask price at market open. Any changes in the price of the Eligible Security in Your order will be reflected in the share quantity You receive for Your Dollar Trade.  For example, if You entered a proposed Dollar Trade to buy $500.00 of VTI currently trading at $233.00, Your Estimated Share Quantity would be 2.1459 shares.  If, after You place a Dollar Trade, the price of VTI increases to $234.50, then Your Final Fractional Share Quantity will be 2.1321, as the price increase results in a corresponding reduction in the Fractional Share quantity you will receive.  Since the Final Fractional Share Quantity You receive may change based on the then-current price, in periods of heightened market volatility, significant price variations in Securities may result in corresponding variations between Your Estimated Share Quantity and Your Final Fractional Share Quantity.

Selling Eligible Securities.  You may sell Eligible Securities You bought through the Service in whole shares or in dollar amounts (sometimes referred to as notional trades).  For example, if You own 4.88 shares of an Eligible Security trading at $205.00 (total value: approx. $1,000.00), You can enter a whole share trade to sell up to four shares of that Security, or You can enter a Dollar Trade to sell $500.00 in that Eligible Security.  If You own one or more whole shares in an Eligible Security enabled by Dollar Trading, You may sell Your entire share quantity by entering a share-based trade (as opposed to a Dollar Trade) to sell all Your whole shares, which will also result in the Auto-Liquidation (described below) of any Fractional Share you own in that Security.  If You own a Fractional Share only for an Eligible Security, You may sell Your entire Fractional Share by electing to sell all shares in the trade path.  VBS does not guarantee that there will be a market for Fractional Shares in any Security, including Eligible Securities.

Avoiding "Overselling".  As described above, Your Final Share Quantity reflects the then-current price for that Eligible Security, and that price may change between then You enter Your order and when it is executed.  This means that if You were to place a Dollar Trade to sell nearly all of Your entire position in an Eligible Security, You would risk "overselling" Your position, that is, selling more shares than you own.  For example, if You own 4.25 shares of VTI valued at $231, the total value of Your position in VTI is approximately $1000.00.  If You were to place a Dollar Trade to sell $1000.00 of VTI and its price decreases to $229, You would need to sell a greater share quantity of VTI than you own (4.3668 shares vs. 4.25 shares) to execute that trade.  As a control to help prevent overselling, if Your proposed Dollar Trade exceeds a certain threshold of your entire position in that Eligible Security ("Position Threshold"), then prior to placing Your Dollar Trade, VBS will prompt You either to lower the dollar amount of Your Dollar Trade so that it no longer Exceeds the Position Threshold, or indicate that you want to sell Your entire position, including all Fractional Shares in that Eligible Security.  The Position Threshold is current 98% or more of Your total position in an Eligible Security in an Eligible Account.  VBS reserves the right to amend or modify the Position Threshold in its sole discretion.

Trades "Not Held".  All Dollar Trades will be "not held" orders.  A "not held" order means that You grant VBS time and price discretion to transact Your orders on a best-efforts basis. You will not be permitted to enter limit or other conditional orders under the Service.  There may be a significant difference in the quoted price for a stock between the time You enter Your order and the time the order is executed. You agree that VBS is not responsible for any potential market fluctuations, or alleged trading losses, during this time period.  If You do not want Your order to be worked on a "not held" basis, do not use the Service.

Order Duration.  Orders placed using the Service during market hours are good for that day's trading session.  Orders entered outside of market hours are good until the close of the next trading session.     

Order Aggregation.  VBS may, in its discretion, aggregate all Dollar Trade orders for the same Eligible Security placed outside market hours.  Under these circumstances, the aggregated orders will each receive the same order execution price as similarly-aggregated Dollar Trades in the same Eligible Security, and will not receive the "opening print" for such Eligible Security.

Extended Hours Trading.  Dollar Trades are not eligible for Extended Hours Trading Sessions.

Trading Halts. In the event of a market trading halt, the Service will also be halted for all Securities, and Your order will be held until trading resumes. However, Your order is good only for that day's trading session, or in the case of an order entered outside of market hours, good until the close of the next trading session.  If trading does not resume or Your order is not executed within that timeframe, it will be cancelled.

Order Fulfillment: Capacity, Pricing, and Trade Confirmations.  There  are two types of Dollar Trades: (1) "Combined Dollar Trades," which are Dollar Trades involving both whole shares and Fractional Shares, and (2) "Fractional Dollar Trades," which involve the purchase or sale of only a Fractional Share (e.g., the purchase of .7 share of VTI).  In both cases, You will receive a trade confirmation for all Dollar Trades You place when You use the Service.

  1. Combined Dollar Trades.  The whole share component of all Dollar Trade orders will be executed by VBS as agent and will receive the price VBS receives from its execution partner.  The corresponding Fractional Share will receive the same execution price as the whole shares.  When VBS executes the Fractional Share component of Your Dollar Trade, it acts as principal.  Your trade confirmation will indicate that VBS acted in a "mixed capacity", that is, as agent for the whole shares and as principal for the corresponding Fractional Share.
  2. Fractional Dollar Trades.  If VBS fulfills a Fractional Dollar Trade against a VBS account, it acts as principal.  If VBS fulfills the Fractional Share from existing VBS account inventory, it prices it at the midpoint of the National Best Bid and Offer ("NBBO").  If VBS does not fulfill the Fractional Dollar Trade against existing VBS account inventory, then the Fractional Share receives the execution price of the whole share acquired by VBS to complete that trade. 

When trading as principal for its own account, VBS may make a profit or incur a loss on each trade.  For example, if You place a Combined Dollar trade to buy an Eligible Security and VBS is required to acquire a whole share to fulfill the Fractional Share portion of that trade, that Fractional Share will receive the execution price of the corresponding whole shares for Your order, but VBS may receive a more favorable price for that whole share based on then-current market data (e.g., NBBO).

Limited Trade Channels for Dollar Trades.  The Service is only available on VBS' website and mobile app.  As a result, You cannot place Dollar Trades with a live VBS representative, or through any other Alternative Channels (defined below) that VBS may make available to You.  You may, however, place whole share trades with a live VBS representative or via any Alternative Channels that VBS may make available to You. 

Cost Basis Method Restrictions and Limitations.  VBS' default cost basis method for Securities You acquire via Dollar Trades is "First In, First Out" ("FIFO").  You may select an alternative cost basis method for each Security under the "Profile and Account Settings" page on vanguard.com, but one cost basis method, Specific Identification ("SpecID"), may not be used for Dollar Trades.  If You previously selected SpecID as Your preferred cost basis method and place a Dollar Trade to sell that Security, VBS will use FIFO as the cost basis method for that trade.  If You want to place a Dollar Trade using an alternative available cost basis method (e.g., "Highest in, First Out" ("HIFO")), You can select it under the "Profile and Account Settings" link before You place Your sell order.  If You wish to use SpecID as Your cost basis method for a sell order, You should place Your order in whole shares, rather than as a Dollar Trade.  

VBS also makes certain alternative cost basis methods available in the trade path as you place Your sell order.  Your cost basis method options in the trade path for Dollar Trades, however, are more limited than those available under the "Profile and Account Settings" link on vanguard.com.    In particular, if You previously selected "Average Cost" as the cost basis method for a Security and place a Dollar Trade sell order, You will not be able to select an alternative cost basis method in the trade path.  Instead, You will need to select an alternative cost basis method under the "Profile and Account Settings" link prior to placing Your sell order. 

Service Limitations/Unavailability.  VBS provides the Service "as is": it does not guarantee that the Service will be available to You at a particular time, and reserves the right to suspend or terminate the Service at any time without prior notice.  Access to the Service may be limited or unavailable during periods of peak demand, market volatility, systems upgrades or maintenance, or for other reasons.  If the Service is unavailable or delayed at any time, You agree to use alternative channels to place Your orders, such as calling Vanguard, or using an alternative trade path identified by VBS ("Alternative Channels").  You also acknowledge and agree that the Service may not be available in some or all of these Alternative Channels.  As a result, You will not be able to place Dollar Trades, and may only execute trades in these Alternative Channels in whole shares only. 

Fractional Share Ownership

Dividends.  You will receive dividends on Fractional Shares unless the prorated amount of the dividend is less than one half of one cent ($0.005). Fractional Shares are eligible for automatic reinvestment of cash dividends received, at Your election, subject to the terms of VBS' Dividend Reinvestment Program.  If You participate in VBS' dividend reinvestment program and Your dividend would equate to less than .0005 share of that Security, then You will receive Your dividend in cash.

Corporate Actions.  The eligibility of Fractional Shares to participate in corporate actions may be different than whole shares.  For mandatory reorganizations, such as mergers and acquisitions, stock splits, or spin-offs, typically VBS will distribute Your interest in proportion to Your ownership interest, inclusive of any Fractional Shares. However, only whole shares, and not Fractional Shares, are eligible to participate in voluntary corporate actions, including tender offers and certain rights offerings.   

Voting Rights in Vanguard ETFs.  If You hold a Fractional Share in a Vanguard exchange traded fund ("ETF"), You will receive a fractional vote for each fractional dollar amount of net asset value ("NAV") owned on the record date.  For voting purposes, Your Fractional Share ownership interest will be rounded to the third decimal; for example, if You own .7757 share of VTI, then VBS will round Your voting interest for that Vanguard ETF to .776 share.

Stock Certificates.  Stock certificates cannot be issued for Fractional Shares.

Account Transfer.  Fractional Shares are not currently transferrable to another brokerage firm.  If, for example, You own 10.5 shares of a Security and instruct VBS to transfer Your Account to another firm, 10 shares will be transferred.  Your 0.5 Fractional Share will be acquired and liquidated by VBS, and will receive the closing price from the trading day immediately preceding the transfer of Your whole share(s) to the other firm.  VBS will distribute these proceeds in Your Account, and will provide confirmation of the Fractional Share liquidation on Your periodic statement.  Since Your Fractional Shares cannot be transferred, Your overall SIPC coverage may be affected.

Suspending Auto-Liquidation.  Prior to offering the Service, if You acquired a Fractional Share in Your Account (e.g., via participation in VBS' dividend reinvestment program), it had been VBS's practice to automatically sell ("Auto-Liquidate") Your Fractional Share holdings when You place an order to sell Your entire whole share position in that Security.  For example, if You owned 10.2 shares in a Security and sold all 10 shares, VBS would Auto-Liquidate the remaining .2 Fractional Share and place the proceeds of that sale into Your Account.  VBS also Auto-Liquidated "orphaned Fractional Shares," that is, Fractional Shares You may receive without a corresponding whole share position in that Security.  The first time You use the Service, VBS will turn off the Auto-Liquidate feature for each Eligible Security in which You place a Dollar Trade for the Account in which You placed such Dollar Trade.  As a result, if You acquired a Fractional Share in an Eligible Security using the Service and own only a Fractional Share, You will need to affirmatively sell that Fractional Share if You wish to sell Your entire position.  Conversely, if You own only a Fractional Share that is no longer classified by VBS as an Eligible Security, it will be subject to VBS's Auto-Liquidation processes.

Revised 11/30/2021