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How to invest

Monitoring your risk level and rebalancing

Remember that asset mix you chose? Check your investments against it and rebalance when needed so you don't drift off course.
8 minute read

Points to know

  • The risk level of your portfolio can change over time.
  • If it gets too far off your original plan, you'll need to bring it back into balance.
  • Your target asset mix may also need to change over time.

Don't lose your balance

It might seem surprising that your portfolio's risk level could change even if you didn't change any of your investments. But when one asset class is doing better than the others, your portfolio could become "overweighted" in that asset class.

For example, imagine you selected an asset allocation of 50% stocks and 50% bonds. If 4 years go by during which stocks return an average of 8% a year and bonds 2%, you'll find that your new asset mix is more like 56% stocks and 44% bonds.

Check your portfolio at least once a year, and if your mix is off by at least 5 percentage points, consider rebalancing. There are a couple ways you can do this.

Buy more of one kind of asset

In the example above, you have too much in stocks and not enough in bonds. So you could direct additional money to your bond investments to bring your portfolio back in balance. (The money could come from new investments or from distributions.)

Move money from one type of asset to another

You could also move some money from your stock portfolio into your bond portfolio. This will immediately realign you with your target.

Note that if you invest in a taxable account, selling investments that have gained value will most likely mean you'll owe taxes. To avoid this, you could rebalance only within your tax-advantaged accounts. You can ask a tax advisor if you have questions about your own situation.

The danger of not rebalancing

It can be hard to convince yourself to rebalance. Selling "winning" shares probably goes against your instincts. But it reflects one of the simplest distillations of investing wisdom: "Buy low, sell high."

If you don't rebalance, you'll wind up with an asset mix that doesn't match your risk tolerance.

Having a larger-than-planned allocation to stocks may seem harmless when stock prices are up. But no market rally lasts forever, and when the tide turns, you'll be overexposed to the drop. As the chart below shows, someone who never rebalanced would likely see his or her portfolio's risk level (as measured by allocation to stocks) increase consistently over time.

Time to rebalance? We can help

If monitoring and rebalancing your investments sounds like more than you bargained for, we have solutions that can make your life easier.

Choose funds that rebalance automatically

Partner with a Vanguard advisor

Life changes—so should your risk level

There are a lot of reasons you might need to rethink the amount of risk you're taking.

If something significant has changed with your overall goal or with your life circumstances, you should check your asset mix and see if it still works for you.

For example, your timeline is always growing shorter. An asset mix that worked for a goal that was originally 20 years away might not be appropriate when your goal is now only 5 years away.

The amount you're shooting for may change too, if you find out you need less or more than expected.

Or you could discover that your risk tolerance isn't as high as you thought it was. Seeing your balance drop significantly might not be too scary in theory—but the reality often is harder to take. If you find that you can't stomach the ups and downs, it's time to change your plan.

SEE THE RESEARCH

Trying to increase returns by jumping in and out of specific asset classes, rather than following a specific plan, has proven challenging even for professionals.

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Get more from Vanguard

Talk with one of our investment specialists

Call 800-962-5028

Monday through Friday
8 a.m. to 8 p.m., Eastern time


Ready to start?

Get more from Vanguard

Talk with one of our investment specialists

Call 800-962-5028

Monday through Friday
8 a.m. to 8 p.m., Eastern time


Ready to start?

All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest. Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss. Bond funds are subject to the risk that an issuer will fail to make payments on time and that bond prices will decline because of rising interest rates or negative perceptions of an issuer's ability to make payments. Investments in bonds are subject to interest rate, credit, and inflation risk.

Advice services are provided by Vanguard Advisers, Inc., a registered investment advisor, or by Vanguard National Trust Company, a federally chartered, limited-purpose trust company.